Client-Attorney Appointments

Since 1997, Pula’s extensive experiences have taught our office one very important lesson; rapport for with the client is paramount.

For this reason, our Pula office ask a lot of questions. We understand the linguistic options to meet your needs. And we know we can find the perfect interpreter for you and your client.

Field Interview / Station Interview

The inquiry interview process of a survivor, or interviewing a suspect requires specific training on the professional’s part. The same is true for an interpreter.

A station would never place a young officer, not trained in investigative techniques, why would that investigation get mired by the hiring of a non-trained interpreter? This oversight could lead to impeachment of the process and interview.

It is crucial during the investigative interview, that the interpreter have a clear and accurate communication between the detectives and the interviewee. Our Pula interpreters have the credentials, the qualifications and expertise to confidently navigate linguistically as well as culturally to ensure accurate communication and understanding on both sides.

The Pula office also understand the suspect is entitled to be informed of their legal rights, understanding a beginner interpreter doesn’t have the needed linguistic skill or any training of the Miranda Rights. Pula never sends out ‘hot blasts’ – meaning, first to respond has the job! We know which interpreters are trained and qualified for specific assignment. Thus, our office reaches out to the interpreters directly.


This legal process can be really dicey when you add an interpreter, any interpreter – and worse when the interpreter is not qualified to handle ASL cases.

Deaf Language Monitors have become extremely important when accountability to the interpreting process is in question, and that happens often with grassroot ASL clients. Why? ASL is NOT English and novice interpreters are most often in the English mode than ASL.

One attorney put it beautify last week when she said. “The client is answering what is being signed, not necessarily what is being said.” So TRUE!

When asked how many interpreters should be hired for a deposition? I ask, “How many attorneys will be in the room? “ ASL accountability is eliminated, without the ability to authenticate the interpreted message. While on the record, one interpreter should not be validating their own work. I have worked with the best, and rarely would they accept an assignment alone.

Uniquely, a simple Hearing, while interpreting the process or review – usually under an hour – can easily be covered with one interpreter.

Miranda Warnings

Being CONFIDENT that the message of "YOUR RIGHTS" is clear, Miranda Warnings have supported a case, and have lost a case.

Because there is an arrestee whose first language is not English, does not mean we throw “English” words at the arrestee and expect them to understand the important message before them.

Communication of their Rights is critical and should not be left to any interpreter that has not experienced several Miranda trainings. One training does not make an expert.

Be confident in Pula cares about each and every arrest. We work with the community as well as the Police Departments making sure all parties communications are understood allowing for the process to be effective.

Pula has validation on who has had the appropriate training, and if an interpreter does not have the training, Pula’s office can share where to find the appropriate training, so that no one is left without the opportunity for enhancing skills.

Exotic Language

Pula works with every language request - and we have worked with many different cultures. Any language beyond English is classified as exotic language, including ASL.

While we specialize in ASL interpreting and training, we have worked with other languages, providing translation and interpretation.

We have worked with legal interpreters in different courts since 1997 have as well provided trainings in Forensic Listening for a variety of interpreting conferences outside of the ASL profession.

Every language is unique, and the care we take to find the best ASL interpreter, is the same approach we use to find an interpreter for any situation.


Police Interviews can often be problematic as there are misunderstandings afoot.

When dealing with any grassroot witness or especially suspect, it is critical to hire a Certified Deaf Interpreter (CDI) for your interrogations. Protect your process! Not only will they catch any innuendo, they are conscious of the variety of sign-symptoms that are prevalent in American Sign Language. CDI’s protect the enforcement unit’s investigation and the integrity of the case. The due process of the suspect being interviewed, will be verified and validated.

Police Interactions

When one community is forced upon another community, we can have escalation or de escalation, depending on the skills of the officers.

How many officers have an in depth understanding of the Deaf Culture, or the Deaf Irianing culture? Or the Deaf Russian?

Pula with other Deaf Agencies have trained and shared information to the cadets during their 15 minute morning calls. We have options available for your officers.

What happens when you yell at someone and they don’t turn around. What happens to your emotions. Recognizing there maybe confusion as words are flying, but communication is not happening.

Let us help in developing awareness with your officers!

Investigative Processes

There is an unique process of 'Listening' during any investigation.

Our Interpreters that have been trained in Forensic Listening, have a different developed skill of listening.

The ASL client, or the indigenous language user has a communication process that has nothing to do with English. Community or novice interpreters do not automatically carry this skill. As we are processing the information before us, the Pula interpreters have learned to step outside of Explicit and employ the entire spectrum of listening criterias. (see Forensic Listening).


Interpreters/translators act as neutral parties during mediation.

Mediation can be used to resolve disputes of any magnitude and is used as an alternative dispute resolution resolving disputes between two or more parties with solid effects. A neutral third party, mediator, helps parties discuss and try to resolve the dispute. Courts can require certain cases to go to mediation, but the process remains “voluntary” in which parties are not required to come to an agreement. Interpreters/translators follow a strict Code of Professional Conduct and remain neutral before, during and after the mediation process. Written by Maria Coronado

Expert Witness

During a 2017, Federal ADA Trial - my team and I watched, fighting tears as we listened to the worse "EXPERT" witness I have ever witness.

As interpreters, we are not to choose sides, however hearing the inept testimony on something he knew nothing about – expect for numbers.

My team and I are both convinced he was one of the main factors for the case failing.

There is nothing more critical than having an awareness of the CULTURAL issues. The Deaf community is not an anagram of numbers.

Pula Legal Interpreting has resources that will build your case, not destroy or mitigate all the hours you have worked to manage this case / trial.

Business Mentor

As Brian Leppla, owner of Haunted San Diego Ghost Tours, mentioned, in his review of Pula, on the first page, that Pula helped his business keep from losing money.

As a business mentor, we share cultural concepts, and understandings in the practices of interpreting the message. As a mentor, we discuss the four levels of listening (explicit, implicit, inferential, intuitive ©), and then we share experiences where cognitive awareness of the culture before you can be served.

There are many ways of serving the Deaf/ DeafBlind Community, and introducing practices that serve both the Deaf client and the business are Pula’s strengths.

We have been in business since 1997, and we understand the business of serving the Deaf as well as the DeafBlind clients. Reach out to Pula, and let us share ideas and concepts that benefit both sides of the equation.


Officers are required to use their intuitive listening often. The inquiry test knows to never ask yes/no questions. Open-ended questions allow for conversation.

The deposed clients answer the interpretation before them, not necessarily the question asked. Certified monitors assure and verify or disqualify the interpretation before you. A monitor (Professional Deaf Language Master) understands ASL is not English. The Deaf have their own indigenous upbringing. Add professional training and a unique understanding of both cultures before them, which cannot be learned in a classroom, allows an attorney to gain insights regarding their clients.

Judges and interpreters have worked together for years. The judge has always control of the conversation in the courtroom. Additionally, the Honor’s opportunity to inquire with open-ended questions, allows for the defendant to clarify which mode of communication works most effectively.

How we can help you?

For the most reliable, consistent and competent national interpretation services available to those representing the Deaf community in legal situations, contact Legal Interpreting!

Court Access for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
A guide, ABA Commission on Disability Rights